Angelfish are a family of tropical marine fish in the order Perciformes. Do not confuse angelfish with angelfish, a special genus of sharks to which they are unrelated. Butterflyfish are consistently closest to angelfish, with which they have many external similarities. Previously, they were even united in one family. Currently, 85 species of angelfish are known.
Green Kachama (Holacanthus ciliaris).
Compared to butterflyfish, angelfish are larger: their average size is 20-30 cm, but there are species up to 60 cm long, the smallest members of the family are 12-15 cm long.The body of these fish is flattened from the sides, a large head, and the tail is shortened, which gives the body a rectangular appearance. On the outer side of the gills there is a pointed tip directed backwards. The pectoral fins are pointed, the pelvic fins are shifted forward and located below the pectoral fins, the dorsal and anal fins are wide. The coloring of these fish is very bright, combining a striped or reticulated pattern of blue, blue, yellow, orange and black. Angelfish are characterized by large differences in the coloration of juvenile and adult fish, they are so large that at first juvenile and adult fish were described as different species.
Juvenile French angelfish (Pomacanthus paru).
This difference has a biological significance, since angelfish actively defend the territory of other fish, recognizing them by color. At the same time, young fish can swim into the zone of adults, remaining "unrecognized".
And this is an adult French angelfish.
Angelfish are thermophilic and are only found in the tropics. All members of the family live in marine waters at shallow depths (up to 50 m). Angelfish occupy permanent sites in the shallow waters of coral reefs, the boundaries of which are guarded. These fish have a pronounced diurnal activity - during the day they search for food, and at night they sleep in secluded crevices of the reef. They live in pairs or in small groups of 3 to 5 individuals. In general, the character of these fish is calm and even a little shy; when they meet divers, they don't show curiosity, but they aren't particularly scared either.
Angelfish feed on a variety of foods ranging from algae to small invertebrates. However, different types of angelfish specialize in a particular type of food. For example, representatives of the genus Centropyge eat filamentous algae, species of the genus Genicanthus feed on zooplancons, and most other species eat sponges, bryozoans, hydroids and other sessile invertebrates. Deadly toxins from the tissues of eaten animals often accumulate in the muscles of fish, which is why cases of poisoning from angelfish meat are known.
King Angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus).
The reproduction of angelfish has its own characteristics. In some species, males and females form pairs, in others - a kind of harem, consisting of one male and several females. The hormonal status of animals can vary greatly depending on living conditions. So, if a male dies in a harem, then one of the females undergoes some kind of hormonal metamorphosis and...turns into a male! After that, the fish continue to spawn as if nothing had happened. Angelfish lay pelagic eggs that float freely in the water column. The eggs of these fish are often eaten by predators and are one of the common components of plankton near reefs. The juveniles of these fish go through a development cycle associated with successive color changes.
Ringed angelfish (Pomacanthus annularis).
Angelfish are typical reef dwellers and are often included in the diet of predatory species. People are also engaged in catching these fish. Angelfish meat is flavorful and they are larger than smaller butterflyfish. They are caught using bottom traps or by shooting with an underwater gun. In addition to gastronomic purposes, angelfish are often captured for aquariums. True, they are not kept in home aquariums, they are too large and difficult to maintain, but in public marine aquariums, angelfish are frequent guests.
Imperial angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator).
Angel fish is a majestic and beautiful name for a fish. Yes, and the fish itself is chic and beautiful, although it always prefers to stay in the shade, its beauty is difficult not to notice and appreciate.
It is easily recognized by its flat body, brightly colored with broad stripes. On average, the size of this fish varies from 12 to 60 cm. In its shape, the angel fish resembles a parallelepiped.
At the top it has a pointed tip with a backward direction. Her appearance is quite attractive, but that doesn't mean she's too sociable. angel fish prefer solitude and solitude. If a partner is found for her, she stays with him until the end of her life.
Characteristics and Habitat of Angel Fish
The tropical latitudes of all the seas of the world are the preferred habitats of angelfish. The waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans most often hide this beauty in themselves. Coral reefs and blue lagoons are favorite places for angelfish.
Often they can be found in marine aquariums. The South American Amazon River has several species of these fish. However, it is not quite necessary to go there to see them, it is enough to visit any pet store, these fish are very popular and, therefore, in demand.
There There are hundreds of varieties of angelfish with a wide variety of colors and sizes. There are also those whose mouths reach a huge size. Swimming above the corals, they open their mouths wide and suck in their food.
Photo angel fish conveys all its beauty and unrivaledness. You can watch this miracle endlessly, both in reality and in the photo. Admiring the fish like an angel brings a sense of peace and a fabulous mood to the human soul.
The Nature and Way of Life of Angel Fish
In relation to their relatives, angelfish sometimes behave aggressively. They mainly live in pairs, sometimes it happens to notice that a male has two females, it is in the normal range for them.
They have clear distribution limits which the males keep. When threatened, they emit a loud clicking sound. The movement of the fish is characteristic and jerky. In case of possible danger, fish can gather in groups near small caves.
If the danger persists, their irritation builds up and they begin to make that clicking noise that can be heard over a long distance. As a rule, such sounds most often frighten off potential enemies.
Angel dragonfish - bright inhabitant of tropical waters. But this is a fictional species of angelfish that can only be found in computer games. angelfish sometimes confused because of the similar name with angelfish.
But if you look at image of angelfish and compare it with a sea angel, then more confusion will never arise because they are very different from each other. We already know what an angelfish looks like.
It's an amazing show that with all its colors elevates the mood . If you look at the sea angel, you can temporarily forget about reality, so much so that this mollusk looks fabulous and unearthly.
Belongs to the angelfish family emperor fish angel, which astonishes by its size and its beauty. It is distinguished from all other fish by its bright blue-green color, with various white and black stripes. This color scheme really gives the fish an imperial, chic grandeur.
Scientists around the world consider dent the shy and uncommunicative angelfish. In fact, as things stand, they aloof and are hostile to anything new and unusual in their lives.
Angel fish live in tropical latitudes, in shallow warm waters and near coral reefs. But most of them can be seen in aquariums and pet stores. It is one of the favorite fish of aquarists.
Aquarium angelfish also stands apart, trying to swim away from other inhabitants of the aquarium . Therefore, it is very important that the aquarium in which the angelfish live is of a large volume. If there is little space for them, they are likely to launch attacks on their neighbours.
There is another interesting type of angelfish - cave angelfish fish. She is blind, but her advantage is that she can move easily like a four-legged creature.
Pictured is a cave angel fish
She can even climb waterfalls. The pelvis and spine of this fish are designed in such a way that, regardless of gravity, it easily supports the weight of the body. The cave angelfish's habitat is the dark caves of Thailand.
The nutrition of different types of angelfish is different. For some species of these fish there are no dietary restrictions, they are omnivorous and can eat not only algae, but also small mollusks and even jellyfish. Others only eat corals or sponges. Still others prefer algae exclusively.
Angel Fish Reproduction and Lifespan
As mentioned above, fish angels form pairs, but there are times when there is one male for several females. If suddenly the male dies under certain circumstances, then one of the females becomes a male.This is one of the characteristics of the angelfish. Their eggs float freely in the water. Most of it can be eaten by predatory fish. Therefore, the angelfish tries to breed in places farther from all places. Their life expectancy is about 8 years.
Catching an angel fish You can, both in fresh and salt water, most often near coral reefs . Angel fish shoal it is almost impossible to see how they prefer to live in pairs.
Angel fish price acceptable. So, any fish lover can afford to buy this beauty. Just before buying, you need to consider that a fight for territory can begin in the aquarium. This happens even among the most peaceful species of fish.
Care with angel fish holds a few secrets. Most importantly, there should be a lot of plant decorations in the aquarium that will serve as a shelter for these fish.
Ideal for this and "living stones". Fish hide in caves and caves made of such stones. The water temperature must be respected. It should be 22-25 degrees. In addition, the water should be salty.
Any change in the quality of the water is immediately felt by the angelfish. It is highly undesirable to release fish into a newly launched aquarium. In such an environment, the indicator of salt water is not yet fully established, but it is full of nitrates, phosphates and other chemicals that can adversely affect the condition and well-being of fish. .
It is necessary to change 25% of the water every half month. The aquarium should have good air circulation, but not too much water flow. Conditions for keeping angel fish in an aquarium um domestic should be perfect. Only then it will grow and multiply well.
Angelfish are a fairly large family of coral fish, with 9 genera and about 80 species. Angelfish live in tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, inhabiting mostly coastal waters, where they stay on coral reefs. These fish lead a solitary life, never forming large aggregations. Their tall, flattened body, combined with the usually rounded dorsal and anal fins, resembles an almost regular oval, and in elongated-finned species it resembles a crescent. The length of angelfish varies from 5 to 60 centimeters, their small mouth is located at the end of a rounded or slightly pointed snout. Angelfish are distinguished by bright and surprisingly exquisite coloring, incredible combinations of the brightest colors: blue, red, emerald, orange, golden yellow, lemon, jet black ... Interestingly, the coloring of young pomacanthus is not at all similar to the color of adult fish. The differences are so great that juveniles and adults of some angelfish species were initially described by scientists as different species. In many ways, including bright coloration, angelfish resemble butterflyfish, however, they differ in having a powerful spine extending from the angle of the serrated preoperculum. Furthermore, the larval development of angelfish lacks the tolichthys stage, characteristic of butterflyfish.
Despite their angelic appearance, angelfish are by no means angelic in nature. The formed pair occupies a certain area of the reef and reacts aggressively to the appearance of other fish, especially their own and related species.
It's sad, but because of the delicious meat, angelfish are everywhere a local catch and in many places, especially in Southeast Asia, they have become quite rare.
The shiny and attractive angelfish, also known as the pomacanth (from the Latin Pomacanthidae), is a family of bony marine fish belonging to the order Perches. Previously, angelfish belonged to the tangerine family, but the large number of subsequently identified morphological differences led to the fact that this species, which has a variegated color, began to be classified as a separate family. Today, there are 90 species of angelfish.
The luminous appearance of the angel fish
This tropical beauty is easily distinguished from the variety and recognized by its bright, broadly striped coloring. All representatives of this family have a flat physique with a high back. Such a flat "figure" allows you to successfully hide from predatory neighbors. Its stripes also perform a protective function, thanks to this element, the head of the fish is in the field of vision of the last predator.
In addition to this characteristic difference, the angelfish family is distinguished by the presence of a rather powerful spine directed backwards, which has a different color from the whole body. It is this that distinguishes angelfish from tangerine fish, which have a very strong resemblance to them, but do not have such a tip at all. In length, some can reach 60 centimeters, although there are dwarf species whose length does not exceed 6 cm.
The color of young fish is very different from the color of already mature members of the family. Juveniles can live in areas of more mature fish, usually they are not hunted, but, as a rule, they must come under aggressive attack from adult relatives. The coloring of young fish (the so-called juvenile angelfish) differs so dramatically that for a time they were mistakenly identified as a separate species.
Angel fish habitat
The birthplace of angelfish is the tropical latitudes of all oceans and seas. Nine species can be found in the Atlantic Ocean, the rest "settled" in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Some species live in the South American Amazon.
However, you can watch them without a tedious trip, since many species living in the Amazon are present in our pet shops.
The most do The most common and easiest to keep in the aquarium "come" from the Caribbean and the Red Sea. Above all, these fish like to live in shallow warm waters, closer to coral reefs.
The eating habits of different types of angelfish can be very different. Some species are omnivorous and willingly eat algae and small animals, and even. In the diet of others, in addition to algae, only sponges are included. The genus Apolemichthys feeds only, lyrebirds (Genicanthus) eat zooplankton, centropigs, or dwarf scalars, feast exclusively on algae.
Despite all the appeal of their unusual appearance, angels are notable for their shyness and unsociability. A shoal of angelfish cannot be seen in the wild.
Most often they live in pairs, choosing a partner for life, but there are species that live in small polygamous groups, including several females led by a male.
So, for example, the males of the Imperial Angel have up to five females, and after the death of the “head of the family”, one of the “females” becomes a male, taking the place of the predecessor. Individuals divide the reefs into ranges with clear boundaries, which zealously defend themselves against the encroachment of rivals.
Large individuals can have an area of up to 1000 square meters. meters, dwarves are limited to a coral colony. As for competitors, relatives, angelfish act decisively and fiercely, emitting a characteristic loud snap when attacking.
Classification of species
The angelfish family includes 8 genera with a total of 90 species. 8 species belong to the genus Apolemichthys, among which the Three-spotted Apolemichthys (Apolemichthys trimaculatus) is known. The genus centropyge (Centropyge) includes 33 species, among which you can meet the yellow-black centropig, also called bicolor, the two-spined centropig, the golden centropig, also known as the blue-cheeked centropig.
The fire angel (Centropyge loricula) is one of the most attractive pygmy angel species. Bright red with vertical black stripes, the fire angel fish graces the waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish are hermaphrodites: if necessary, the female can act as a male.
In addition, there is also the genus Pomacanthus (Pomacanthus), which includes 12 species, including the imperial pomacant or imperial angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator), the black pomacant or little angelfish (Pomacanthus paru), the speckled pomacanthus or the semicircular angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus). And the genus Pygoplites (Pygoplites), which includes the Pygoplites or the king fish angel (Pygoplites diacanthus), as well as the genus Paracentropyge.
On the Internet there is also a dragonfin (or dragonfin) angelfish, but this representative is completely fictional and can only be found in the video game World of Warcraft. Also in computer games, the keither angelfish is also caught.
Angelfish are often confused with butterflyfish. Indeed, they are very similar, but unlike angelfish, the butterflyfish (not to be confused with the freshwater variety) does not have a tip on the preopercular bone.
Notice to aquarists
In the aquarium, angelfish stay alone, trying to swim away from other inhabitants. The volume of the aquarium in which the angel lives should be large enough, since the territory is important for this family of fish, and in a small aquarium they can attack neighbors.
It is advisable to decorate the aquarium with plants and elements that play the role of shelters. It is also good to put them in such a way that they form caves and caves where a fish can hide. The water temperature should be between 22 and 25 degrees. The salinity of the water is 1020 - 1024.
Almost all angelfish are sensitive to changes in water quality. They should not be released into a freshly started aquarium as it has not yet stabilized at the correct levels and contains excessive amounts of nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and other traditional unwanted companions.
Every 2 weeks it is necessary to change 15% - 25% of the 'water. The aquarium should have good circulation, while maintaining low water flow areas.
The aquarium must be equipped with a quality system.
The angelfish (Pomacanthidae) belongs to the family of the same name, the marine bonies, a group of perch-like fish. The family includes nine genera and seventy-four species.
Angelfish are easily recognized by their flat bodies, bright, variegated coloring, and broad stripes. Having a flat body, it easily hides in corals from predators. The scratches also act as a means of protection. Due to their presence, the head of the angelfish is the last thing predators see.
In addition to these characteristic features, representatives of this family are distinguished by the presence of a powerful tip pointing back. It is located on the lower part of the gills. In this case, the tip has a slightly different color than the whole body.
Angelfish can be six to sixty centimeters long. The smallest representatives of the family include the centropig. The length of these dwarf angelfish does not exceed ten centimeters. Some species have very large mouths. When an angelfish with such a mouth swims above the coral, it sucks in food like a vacuum cleaner.
Juveniles are completely different in color from adults. It must be said that the differences are so obvious that previously, for a long time, young animals were classified as separate species. These differences are used for camouflage. In addition, a different coloring helps juveniles avoid aggression from adult fish. Thanks to this feature, the young live quietly on the territory of adults. Until the fish grow up, they are not hunted.
As a rule, at the age of a year or two, the color of the fish begins to change. This indicates that the juveniles become adults. From that moment, they take their place in the community. Some angelfish are very colorful when young, but not as beautiful as adults. All juveniles have a striped pattern.
An angel fish is considered a real beauty - not a single inhabitant of the underwater world has such amazing color combinations. There are hundreds of color varieties. The striped pattern is the most popular, but sometimes angelfish dress up as butterflyfish. In this case, several rather large color spots appear on their body.
The habitat of angelfish is the tropical waters of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. As a rule, they live in coastal waters and prefer to inhabit areas at different depths (from three to sixty meters).
Among the representatives of the family there are omnivorous specimens. They feed on completely different food, from small animals to algae. There are also vegetarians. These feed only on algae and sponges (like, for example, carp).
These perch-like representatives are very aggressive creatures towards their relatives. For them, privacy is very important. Characteristic is the division of the habitat. Large fish inhabit and defend a territory of about one thousand square meters from their rivals. At the same time, dwarf representatives can rely on only one coral colony.
It should be noted that angelfish rarely form large aggregations. As a rule, they form long-term pairs or small harem groups, consisting of several females and one male. These "harems" and couples can last a lifetime. The family very aggressively defends its territories, chasing away strangers.
Angelfish, like butterflyfish, are the main composition of coral aquariums. At the same time, the former get along quite badly with their relatives.
It should be noted that keeping fish at home requires certain knowledge about one or another species. As a rule, fights and fights take place on the territory. And even, at first glance, peaceful species of freshwater fish (angel or discus) can be aggressive towards each other.